Watching Time: James Baldwin and Malcolm X

Mikko Tuhkanen

Abstract


Taking its cue from recent scholarly work on the concept of time in African American literature, this essay argues that, while both James Baldwin and Malcolm X refuse gradualism and insist on “the now” as the moment of civil rights’ fulfillment, Baldwin also remains troubled by the narrowness assumed by a life, politics, or ethics limited to the present moment. In his engagement with Malcolm’s life and legacy—most notably in One Day, When I Was Lost, his screen adaptation of Malcolm’s autobiography—he works toward a temporal mode that would be both punctual and expansive. What he proposes as the operative time of chronoethics is an “untimely now”: he seeks to replace Malcolm’s unyielding punctuality with a different nowness, one that rejects both calls for “patience,” endemic to any politics that rests on the Enlightenment notion of “perfectibility,” and the breathless urgency that prevents the subject from seeing anything beyond the oppressive system he wants overthrown. Both thinkers find the promise of such untimeliness in their sojourns beyond the United States.


Keywords


James Baldwin, Malcolm X, One Day, When I Was Lost, The Autobiography of Malcolm X, Civil Rights movement, chronoethics, witnessing

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7227/JBR.2.6

Copyright (c) 2016 Mikko Tuhkanen

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